Hypercalcemia is an abnormal increase in serum ionized calcium concentration. When the calcium (intestine, bone) entering the extracellular fluid exceeds the excretion (intestine, kidney), hypercalcemia occurs, and the blood calcium concentration is higher than 2.75mmol / L. There are two major causes of hypercalcemia: PTH-dependent and non-PTH-dependent hypercalcemia. It is generally believed that serum calcium above 3.75mmol / L can cause a high calcium crisis, and improper handling is life-threatening and is a clinical emergency.

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